Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (born 19 April 1939) is a Twelver Shia Marja' and the second and current supreme leader of Iran, in office since 1989. He is the head of government of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
He was previously the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. Khamenei is the second-longest serving head of state in the Middle East (after Oman's Sultan Qaboos), as well as the second-longest serving Iranian leader of the last century, after Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi.
The President is the highest ranking official of Iran (however, the President is still required to gain the Supreme Leader's official approval before being sworn in before the Parliament and the Leader also has the power to dismiss the elected President at anytime).
Current long-time supreme leader, Ali Khamenei, ruling Iran for nearly three decades, has issued decrees and made final decisions on economy, environment, foreign policy, national planning, and almost everything else in the country.
Khamenei has also made final decisions on the degree of transparency in elections in Iran, and has fired and reinstated Presidential cabinet appointments.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.
During his 40-year tenure, Rafsajani amassed a large amount of power serving as the speaker of parliament, commander-in-chief during the Iran-Iraq war, president and chose Ali Khamenei as the supreme leader of Iran.
The Guardian Council of the Constitution is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
There have been instances when the current supreme leader Ali Khamenei has publicly criticized members of the assembly of experts resulting in their arrest and dismissal.
For example, Khamenei publicly called then-member of the Assembly of Experts Ahmad Azari Qomi, a traitor, resulting in Qomi's arrest and eventual dismissal from the Assembly of Experts.
There have been also instances where the Guardian Council reversed its ban against particular people after being ordered to do so by Khamenei.